January 15th, 2023

The strange case of Einstein curvature of space-time.

Hi, welcome to my webpage dedicated to a strange problem in physics and astronomy.


After years of trying to understand this problem, it appears there is a very simple way to fix the impossible problem of dark matter and dark energy. Fixing something some take for granted: Einstein's curvature of "space-time". It may sound too simple but I'm sure that if you read this page carefully and you will find it interesting anyway. While what will be presented here is a very specific solution that does NOT imply new physics, it will challenge many readers. When I first realized this, I was dumbfounded. It took me a while to realize the implications. I have challenged some physicists about this, and believe it or not, even if they fully understand the point, no one wants to touch this out of fear of ridicule because of the dogma surrounding Einstein. This is understandable to some extent for a career-oriented scientist.

I'm open to critics, as any scientist should. I will set up a forum and i have a discord channel dedicated to discussing this issue. Nonetheless, after you are done reviewing the arguments, i challenge anyone to prove me wrong, theoretically. Hopefully we will be able to test this experimentally someday. But you will understand there is nothing new here, and it's so simple it will probably have you question other dogma you did not know existed. It's a strange world. That being said, i'm left with more questions than answers, as it is often the case it seems. I will try to make this short and straight to the point.

Some context

Let's start with Planks's Black body radiation that simply state that photons are everywhere and that the density of photon gases increases by a third power of the temperature.

Detailed math about this here
Black-body radiation Wikipedia

Then, using Wien's displacement law, we can deduct that “empty space” at 2.7 Kelvin has a spectrum of peak wavelength of 1.0732 mm.


Consequently, because of the superposition principle, a light wave traveling in space would be bent by a change of temperature of space itself. Ex: Hot galaxies cluster or corona of the sun. These videos explains the principle of wave superposition very well.

To summarize, empty space has a wavelength, a change of temperature changes its wavelength. It interferes with any other source of light. A change in wavelength of space (temperature) bends light traveling trough space. So if for example a light wave passes through hot gases, like a galaxy cluster, it could produce what is called a Einstein ring, or simply bending and stretching.

waves Waves superposition

Conclusion #1:

"A Lightwave is bent by changes of temperature of the space it travels through. (change in the density of the photon gas."

This is brutal, but very simple. There is no new physics here, and enough anecdotal evidence for those who seek it. For exemple, it's undeniable that refraction is part of the equation by simply looking to the formula: n = c/v. After all n=c/v, and the phase velocity v = wavelength x frequency. Redshift is simply the (wavelength shift/source wavelength) +1, where (1/redshift) would give the refractive index.


On the dependence of the speed of light in vacuum on temperature

Dark Matter

The most likely candidate for dark matter when it was first implied with the observation of rotational velocities of stars around the Milky Way were macho's. (Massive compact halo objects) The reasoning is legitimate and still the most likely cause of the observation. Quite simply, it would make sense there are many objects like neutron stars and black holes lurking around the galaxy. After all, there are very likely many remnants of dead starts turned to those objects. It is difficult to make sense of all of this today with all the noise and theories around the subject. That being said, while it is still possible to be something else, even the most brilliants physicists think the current state of affairs is a clusterfuck.

Would'nt it make sense we could not detect those objects, wich are relatively cold by the way (solar mass black hole are 60 nanokelvin!, Hawking radiation, alt.Link ) if our method of detection is microlensing and light is not bent by gravity?

Quote: A black hole of one solar mass has a temperature of only 60 nanokelvins; in fact, such a black hole would absorb far more cosmic microwave background radiation than it emits. A black hole of 4.5 × 10²² kg (about the mass of the Moon) would be in equilibrium at 2.7 kelvins, absorbing as much radiation as it emits. Yet smaller primordial black holes would emit more than they absorb, and thereby lose mass

gravitational-wave signals LIGO TWITTER

I'm not drawing any conclusion here. But i strongly imply something is wrong. And yet, still no new physics in sight! :)

Wimps and Macho's, methods of detection

The big bang and dark energy

- The scientific community, Hubble included, at that time express concern that the cosmological redshift was not caused by expansion but by some bending of the light, an optical effect.
- Einstein never really accepted this theory and continued to work on the equations for a static state universe for a long time.
- To this day, we still don’t have the science for the singularity, expansion and acceleration.

When Hubble first observed redshift, he and other scientists quickly realized something was off. The further they looked the more redshifted were the galaxies. The obvious answer was they were moving away at a slowing rate because of the Doppler effect. (relativity of simultaneity imply the further you look, the further back in time is the observation, so it seemed like the further back in time, the faster they were receding from each other.) Long story short, this is how the big bang was born, just like that. The problem is this undertaking introduce some unnecessary rubbish like the singularity. While every scientist knows the singularity is an atrocity that breaks every single laws of physics known to man, they all seem very comfortable with that. Let's try to find out what is going on.

Here is my little friend CMB (cosmic microwave background) cmb
Some says it is the remnant of the big bang, some even say it's a bruised bubble and, it's proof of parallels universes, even infinite universes. While one statement seems more reasonable than the other, they are both far-fetched theories. It's a map of the temperature of the visible universe. Can you feel the heat? That being said, while the bright colors suggest wild temperature variation it is at 2.7 kelvins, with more or less a few microkelvins in variation. So i would say it's at a fairly even temperature.

In the context presented in this paper, i would make sense that a light wave, traveling some distance would be subjected to those tiny variations of temperature (more distance=more variations), introducing chromatic aberration (smudge) in the images we receive with Hubble and Webb. It would also introduce redshift because of the combine phase velocity of the light and the added phases of these repeated (tiny changes in temperature) "refraction".

Here is an example of the chromatic aberration in this video.

By consequent, that's also booking it for dark energy since obviously at this point a supernova, having a higher frequency than a galaxy, so a shorter wavelength, would be more redshifted because of dispersion. There is no expansion, and certainly no acceleration. Is this not beautiful? No new physics, no singularity, no big bang and no mysterious dark energy!


The CMB Polarization

(Kudo to Dr. Brian Keating for inadvertently pointing this out) vulcan

Polarization by Refraction
"Polarization can also occur by the refraction of light. Refraction occurs when a beam of light passes from one material into another material. At the surface of the two materials, the path of the beam changes its direction. The refracted beam acquires some degree of polarization. Most often, the polarization occurs in a plane perpendicular to the surface. The polarization of refracted light is often demonstrated in a Physics class using a unique crystal that serves as a double-refracting crystal. Iceland Spar, a rather rare form of the mineral calcite, refracts incident light into two different paths. The light is split into two beams upon entering the crystal. Subsequently, if an object is viewed by looking through an Iceland Spar crystal, two images will be seen. The two images are the result of the double refraction of light. Both refracted light beams are polarized - one in a direction parallel to the surface and the other in a direction perpendicular to the surface. Since these two refracted rays are polarized with a perpendicular orientation, a polarizing filter can be used to completely block one of the images. If the polarization axis of the filter is aligned perpendicular to the plane of polarized light, the light is completely blocked by the filter; meanwhile the second image is as bright as can be. And if the filter is then turned 90-degrees in either direction, the second image reappears and the first image disappears. Now that's pretty neat observation that could never be observed if light did not exhibit any wavelike behavior."

Conclusion #2

"There is no expansion and acceleration of the universe. Redshift is caused by the combined phase velocity of the observed light, and the "phases shift" of the path the same light takes to reach us, affecting light relative speed."

Note* Relative motion still need to be taken into account with the doppler effect.

There is plenty of evidence today from the data of different observations to support this theory. For example, it has been proven more than once there is a strong correlation with the observation of Einstein rings and temperature. Lately, James Webb shown us that galaxies as far as we can observe them seem to be well-formed structures which does not fit well into the big bang model.

Then there is this: Distance Duality Test

Twitter explanation thread by Pengfei Li

1993 paper on the subject: The redshift-distance relation

Addressing the obvious – Everything is right but not lensing.

While general relativity has been proven in multiple ways and is right one detail is misunderstood by everyone and maybe even Einstein.(he knew that...Why Einstein did not believe that general relativity geometrizes gravity ) Space is not bent by gravity. The curvature of space time is a tool to visualize and calculate the effect of gravity on baryonic matter, everything that as a mass. While we can observe redshift from gravity it is only because of time dilation. It has nothing to do with lensing because it is observer dependent. In other words, gravity has no effect on light which is massless, gravitational redshift is only dependent on the observer that is or not affected by time dilation. When you look at an Einstein ring for example and you are not time dilated by the gravity of the distant object gravitational influence light does not appear redshifted to you, the same principle is applied to "bending" as they are both related to a change in wavelength.
It's relavity after all, it's dependant on the point of view of the observer.
We have all been bamboozled!

Final notes

I understand this, as simple as it is, not only solves many mysteries, but will also cast a serious doubt about Einstein curvature of space vision, among other things. I never intended to challenge Einstein, or not even thought I would land anywhere near here in the first place. If anything, my conclusions can be attributed to curiosity, learning, knowledge of history, philosophy, part luck, and imagination. It may not be right, or exactly right, for those who seek to understand the universe we live in this presentation will surely be of great interest.

Other references
Mass-temp-relation.galxie clusters.pdf

Clusters and Dark Matter

Saul Perlmutter darkenergy.pdf (see page 16 "loopholes")

More videos page

The next doc is VERY interresting. This guy understand better than most some of the problems, and he was so close to the solution. He just could not pin-point it like it is presented here by explaining that light is bent by changes of temperature. To be honest he inspired me to come forward when i taught i was going crazy!
Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift : Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light

Food for Thought

It is commonly believed light cannot escape the event horizon because of gravity. This video explains this very well. It is true we cannot observe light escape the event horizon but what is happening here? Hawking radiation predict (The bigger the black hole the lower the temperature) that the temperature inside the event horizon drops sharply to the point of photon scarcity. (black body radiation) If light was a traveling particle we would likely observe it through the event horizon if there is no curvature of space-time, photons have no mass. But we don’t so this beg the question is photon are just carrier of the electromagnetic wave, much like water caries waves (energy)?

Eric Lerner explaining the problem

Thank you for reading, hopefully some of you will have some questions, even suggestions, to clarify some points. The easiest way at the moment would be to join the discord channel here. Discord
My handle on Twitter is @stoic_david.
You can also contact me with this form